Zika virus: Resources, references and recommendations

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The following is a collection of almost 100 links to news stories, resources, references and recommendations associated with mosquito-borne Zika virus and the current outbreak in the Americas.

What is Zika? What are the health threats and why an outbreak now?

Zika virus (CDC). Essential resource. Click.

Zika virus (WHO). Essential resource. Click.

Zika virus spreading explosively, says World Health Organisation (The Guardian). Coverage of statement by WHO Director General that the explosive outbreak of Zika virus in the Americas as “deeply concerning” and that an emergency committee has been convened. Click.

WHO Director-General summarizes the outcome of the Emergency Committee regarding clusters of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (WHO). Click.

Zika virus declared a global health emergency by WHO (ABC News). Click.

Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas — Region of the Americas, May 2015–January 2016 (CDC). Click.

WHO early response to Zika virus praised by Australian experts (The World Today). Click.

First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil (Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz). Click.

How a Medical Mystery in Brazil Led Doctors to Zika (New York Times). A summary of how health officials investigating a spike in cases of birth defects put together the link to a mosquito-borne disease. Click.

Explainer: where did Zika virus come from and why is it a problem in Brazil? (The Conversation). A good, brief summary of the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil and the health risks it poses. Click.

Zika virus outbreak: What you need to know (New Scientist). A good summary of issues associated with Zika virus outbreak. Click.

Zika outbreak: What you need to know (BBC). A good summary of what is known of Zika virus and its health risks. Click.

What to Know About Zika Virus (The Atlantic). Click.

Zika virus, explained in 6 charts and maps (Vox). Useful collection of infographics on Zika virus, current and historic outbreak distributions and health impacts. Click.

An Illustrated Guide To The Zika Outbreak (Huffington Post). Click.

Why it’s wrong to compare Zika to Ebola (The Conversation). Whats the difference between Ebola and Zika viruses? What are the implications of outbreaks and declarations of public health emergencies? Click.

Zika fever: panic won’t help us (The Guardian). Editorial highlighting the horror and unexpectedness of the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil and how we should move forward in mosquito control. Click.

What we still don’t know about Zika virus (Mashable). There are plenty of gaps in our understanding of Zika virus. Click.

The human cost of Zika is clear, but will Brazil’s economy suffer too? (The Conversation). Outbreaks of infectious diseases can have greater impacts than the human illness alone. Click.

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Zika virus and its vectors

Mosquitoes: The Zika vector (Radio National). Why do we need to know how many mosquitoes can spread Zika virus and what is it about the mosquitoes that do that make them such an important pest? Click.

Natural-born killers: mosquito-borne diseases (SMH). What is it that makes mosquitoes such effective vectors of pathogens? Click.

Zika Virus in Gabon (Central Africa) – 2007: A New Threat from Aedes albopictus? (PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases). Click.

Oral Susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) to Zika Virus (PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases). Click.

Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): A Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Singapore (PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases). Click.

Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus (BMC Infectious Diseases). Click.

Genetic Characterization of Zika Virus Strains: Geographic Expansion of the Asian Lineage (PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases). Click.

Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the 20th Century (PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases). Click.

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The spike in cases of microcephaly and its suspected links to Zika virus infection of those pregnant has been raising greatest concern. (Image: BBC)

Zika virus, pregnancy and microcephaly

Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly — Brazil, 2015 (CDC). Click.

Microcephaly in Brazil: is it occurring in greater numbers than normal or not? (Virology Down Under). Great post highlighting the gaps in our understanding of links between microcephaly and Zika virus. Click.

Proving that the Zika virus causes microcephaly (The Conversation).  What questions must be answered to confirm a link between Zika virus and microcephaly. Click.

Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak — United States, 2016 (CDC). Click.

CDC: Link between Zika, microcephaly looks “stronger and stronger” (Reuters). Click.

Facts about Microcephaly (CDC). What are the impacts, causes and treatments associated with microcephaly? Click.

Zika virus outbreak raises Pacific, Americas travel concerns for pregnant women (Stuff NZ). Implications for those travelling in Pacific while pregnant. Click.

Safely avoiding mosquito bites when pregnant (Mosquito Research and Management). My tips on safe and effective avoidance of mosquito bites while pregnant. Click.

13 Things Pregnant Women Should Actually Know About Zika (Buzzfeed). Some good advice, most importantly, don’t panic. Don’t even panic if you’re pregnant and bitten by a mosquito. Click.

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Zika virus and the threat to Australia

Does Zika virus pose a threat to Australia? (The Conversation). An overview of why, and why not, Zika virus poses a risk to Australia. Click.

The Threat to Australia: The Rise Of Zika Virus (Popular Science). Article from 2014 highlighting potential risk to Australia of Zika virus following detection of imported cases. Click.

Zika Virus Explained: Aussie Mozzies, Bali Risks And Pregnancy (Huffington Post). Good summary of risks posed to Australia and Australian travellers. Click.

Zika virus: Risk of a widespread outbreak in Australia ‘low’, experts say (ABC News). A summary of reasons why there won’t be a major outbreak of Zika virus in Australia. Click.

Zika talkback with Dr Karl on Triple J (ABC). I join Dr Karl for talkback on Zika virus, advice to travellers and the risks of outbreak in Australia. Click.

Zika virus alert (NSW Health). Factsheet on Zika virus and risk to NSW. Click.

Little chance of Zika outbreak in NSW (Sky News). There is unlikely to be a major outbreak of Zika virus across Australia’s most populated region. Click.

Two Aussies confirmed with Zika as US records first case of virus transmitted through sex (The Mercury). Click.

Zika virus mosquitoes found in Sydney: Airport increases insecticide spraying of incoming passengers (Daily Telegraph). Report of recent detection of Aedes aegypti at Sydney airport by Department of Agriculture and Water Resources. Click.

Queensland announces $1.4 million program to fight Zika. (Brisbane Times). Queensland authorities announce response plan; increasing monitoring and research into Zika virus.  Click.

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Zika virus entering Australia

Zika virus and Travel Alert for Australians (Smart Traveller). Click.

Imported Zika Virus Infection from the Cook Islands into Australia, 2014 (PLOS Current Outbreaks). Click.

Zika Virus Infection Acquired During Brief Travel to Indonesia (Am J Trop Med Hyg). Published report from 2013 of Australian traveller exposed to Zika virus in Indonesia. Click.

Aussie diagnosed with Zika after Bali monkey bite, experts warn of missed cases (SMH). Report of 2015 case os suspected infection following monkey bite in Bali. Click.

Zika Virus Infection In Australia Following A Monkey Bite In Indonesia (Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health). Abstracted from published case report of suspected Zika virus infection following monkey bite. Click.

Six cases of Zika virus in Australia last year as pregnant women warned not to travel (SMH). Summary of recent imported cases of Zika virus infection in Australian travellers. Click.

Health Department confirms WA Zika case (The West Australian). Report of imported case of Zika virus infection in returning traveller to Western Australia. Click.

Zika virus: Queensland woman, child confirmed as contracting illness (ABC News). Imported cases of Zika virus infection with travellers returning to QLD from El Salvador. (ABC News). Click.

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Zika outbreaks in the Pacific

Zika Virus Outside Africa (Emerging Infectious Diseases). Summary of outbreaks in regions outside Africa with specific discussion of the first outbreak in Pacific. Click.

Zika Virus Outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia (New England Journal of Medicine). Click.

Zika virus: following the path of dengue and chikungunya? (The Lancet). Good paper, including useful maps, of activity of three critical mosquito-borne pathogens. Click.

Rapid spread of emerging Zika virus in the Pacific area (Clinical Microbiology and Infection). Publication reporting on the 2013 outbreak of Zika virus in the Pacific. Click.

Notes on Zika virus – an emerging pathogen now present in the South Pacific (Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health). An article assessing the risks of Zika virus to New Zealand. Although no suitable vectors exist there, a relatively larger volume of infected travellers would be expected to occur given the strong links to Pacific Islands. Click.

Tonga declares Zika outbreak (Sky News). Zika is impacting more regions than the Americas in 2016. Click.

Australia to help Pacific fight Zika (SBS News). How can Australian authorities take their expertise in mosquito monitoring, mosquito control and vaccine development to assist outbreak of Zika virus. Click.

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Zika virus and sex: An unusual route of transmission

Probable Non–Vector-borne Transmission of Zika Virus, Colorado, USA (Emerging Infectious Diseases). First documented case of transmission of Zika virus through direct contact between people. Click.

Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus (Emerging Infectious Diseases). Publication from 2015 on suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Click.

Zika virus infection ‘through sex’ reported in US (BBC). Suspected case of sexually transmitted Zika virus in Texas in 2016. Click.

CDC: To avoid Zika exposure, consider no sex (The Washington Post). Coverage of CDC guidance on avoiding sexual transmission risk of Zika virus. Click.

Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus — United States, 2016 (CDC). Click.

Zika: Why the virus isn’t an STI despite being passed on after sexual contact (Independent).  Only where sex is the predominant route of transmission, and the infection is maintained in the human population by sexual transmission, is a pathogen considered a STI and that definition does not apply to Zika virus. Click.

Brazil finds Zika in saliva, urine; expert warns against kissing (SMH). Detection of Zika virus in saliva and urine doesn’t necessarily mean these are pathways of transmission. Authorities advising against kissing? Click.

Zika and the 2016 Rio Olympics

Zika Outbreak Means It Is Now Time To Cancel Rio Olympics (Forbes). Is the threat of Zika virus really so great that the Rio Olympics should be cancelled? Click.

NYU Bioethicist, Amid Zika Threat, Wants to Reschedule Rio Olympics: ‘What the Hell’s the Difference?’ (New York Magazine). With so many unanswered questions, and little confidence the outbreak is under control, is it really ethical to go ahead with the Rio Olympics? Click.

Brazil minister says no plans to cancel Rio Games (AP). Click.

Zika virus will not hamper Rio Olympics says IOC president Thomas Bach (ABC News). Click.

IOC says it will issue advisory on Zika virus spreading across South America ahead of Rio Olympics (ABC News). Click.

Zika crisis and economic woes bring gloom to Brazil’s Olympic buildup (The Guardian). Click.

Zika scare: Olympic athletes need mosquito nets as Bushman sponsors team (SMH). Click.

Zika Virus Rio Olympics: How Australian Athletes Will Fight Potential Infection (Huffington Post). Click.

Bushman named as official insect repellent of Australian Olympic team (mUmBRELLA). One of Australia’s leading mosquito repellent manufacturers to support the athletes and officials travelling to Rio Olympics. Click.

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Battling mosquitoes and the Zika virus outbreak

How Can We Slow The Epidemic Of Zika Infections? (Forbes). Now that the outbreak of Zika virus has been documented, what strategies are available to slow the spread and increasing numbers of cases? Click.

The world needs a Zika vaccine: Getting one will take years (STAT). We won’t have a Zika virus vaccine anytime soon. Here is an explanation why. Click.

Brazil Zika virus: ‘War’ declared on deadly mosquitoes (BBC). How are authorities battling the outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil? Click.

Mosquito Wars Update: Would You Choose GMO ‘Mutants,’ Pesticides Or Dengue And Zika Viruses? (Forbes). The outbreak of Zika virus has focused the attention of health authorities on options for future mosquito-borne disease management strategies. Click.

Brazil sends in 200,000 soldiers to stop the spread of the Zika virus outbreak which has seen huge numbers of babies born with small heads and cast a shadow over the Olympics (Daily Mail). Click.

Here’s what it will take to stop the Zika virus (Vox). Summary of critical issues to address to better understand and stop the Zika virus outbreak. Click.

Curbing Zika Virus: Mosquito Control (Popular Science). Well supported article on options for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease management. Click.

7 ways the war on Zika mosquitoes could be won (New Scientist). Overview of the different approaches available to beat the Zika virus outbreak and mosquito-borne disease more generally. Click.

In Australia, a New Tactic in Battle Against Zika Virus: Mosquito Breeding (New York Times). Overview of emerging technologies developed in Australia to battle dengue but could be incorporated into the Zika virus response. Click.

Zika virus: pesticides are not a long-term solution says leading entomologist (The Guardian). Spraying insecticides can sometimes be a blunt instrument unless there is an understanding of where best to target mosquito populations. Click.

Zika outbreak revives calls for spraying with banned pesticide DDT (STAT). Outbreaks of mosquito-borne disease often prompt calls to return to DDT as teh insecticide of choice to control mosquitoes. Click.

Insecticide to be sprayed inside planes from Zika affected regions (The Guardian). Aircraft should already be treated with insecticides to stop movement of mosquitoes from one country to the next, hitchhiking in planes but efforts have been boosted in wake of Zika virus fears. Click.

Bats and Mosquitoes

Illustration by Golly Bard

Be careful what you wish for

Let’s Kill All the Mosquitoes (Slate). Emergence of another mosquito-borne disease, another opportunity to call for killing mosquitoes off completely. Click.

Why Eradicating Earth’s Mosquitoes To Fight Disease Is Probably a Bad Idea (Vice). Don’t be so sure that eradicating mosquitoes is the answer, or at least it won’t have consequences. Click.

Would it be wrong to eradicate mosquitoes? (BBC). What could be the unexpected consequences of sending mosquitoes extinct? Click.

Sights on world’s deadliest animal as Zika virus spreads (The New Daily). Wiping out all mosquitoes is probably a bad idea but perhaps we could knock off just a few and greatly improve the health of the planet? Click.

There’s one (or more) in every crowd…

Is Zika Virus the Next Tool For Forced Sterilization, Vaccination and Depopulation? (Activist Post). Oh boy. Click.

Health experts slam anti-vaxxers’ zika virus conspiracy theory as ‘absurd’ (News.com.au). No, immunization programs didn’t cause the Zika virus outbreak and increases in microcephaly. Click.

Concerning Correlation: GMO Mosquitoes Caused Zika Virus Outbreak? (21st Centuray Wire). Bonkers. Click.

No, GM Mosquitoes Didn’t Start The Zika Outbreak (Discover Magazine). Wonderful article debunking one of the most common conspiracy theories associated with the Zika virus outbreak. Click.

Got any more useful links? Tweet them through to me!

Photo of sign from Zika Forest taken from here.

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Should we start pulling out mangroves to save our wetlands?

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You have no idea how badly I wanted to jump down into the thick black mud.

I don’t remember much about primary school but I do have strong recollections of an assignment on the importance of mangroves to the ecology of the Parramatta River. Perhaps not the assignment itself, but I do remember Mum and Dad taking me down to the river and I drew some pictures of the twists and turns of branches and trunks and the finger-like pneumatophores punching up through the thick dark grey mud. It may only have been 10 minutes drive from home in Western Sydney but it was a glimpse into a world so strange and alluring, how could it not have made an impact on me?

I remember the great disappointment of my parent’s stern words keeping me from jumping down below the high water mark and into the mud. The same feelings of frustration and disappointment when stopped from doing other fun things like playing in stormwater drains, letting off firecrackers or swimming in rips!

Mangroves don’t just attract the attention of young environmental scientists. Exploiting a unique place between the land and sea, mangroves have intrigued and fascinated many before me with the first descriptions, by Greek mariners, thought to date back to 325BC. What were these plants that seemed to defy logic, growing half submerged in salty water?

Almost thirty years after my primary school assignment, with sandshoes replaced by gumboots, that childhood disappointment of adventure squashed is now matched by the realisation that mangroves aren’t perfect. In fact, they’re a threat to some of the other plants and animals found in our local local estuaries.

Now I spend most of my summer coated in that same dark grey mud, covered in mosquito bites and thinking about how important mangrove management will be for the future of our coastal wetlands.

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More than mangroves

There is little doubt mangroves are an ecologically important habitat. They provide a home for a wide range of creatures, from bacteria to birds. Rich in nutrients and hiding places, mangroves are perfect nurseries for fish and crustaceans. Bird and bats and rodents and reptiles all find a home here too.

They’re threatened by climate change but they may also play a critical role in protecting our shoreline against sea level rise and storm surges. Sea level rise itself may knock out mangrove forests too but mangroves could also mitigate the impacts of climate change by storing carbon. In fact, the role estuarine wetlands may play in keeping carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere could be critical.

Make no mistake, mangroves are important. Thing is, it is also important to also remember that estuarine wetlands are more than just mangroves.

When we talk about estuarine wetlands, we’re grouping together a number of habitats that  include seagrass, saltmarsh, sedgelands and mudflats as well as mangroves. Each of these habitats play an important role in the functioning of the estuary as a whole but they each, individually, provide something specific to the wildlife that utilise the wetlands.

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Saltmarshes are critically important and are in desperate need of conservation. In NSW they’re listed as Endangered Ecological Communities. As well as urbanisation and pollution, a changing climate and sea level rise risk severely degrading the quality of these habitats.

One of the key threats facing saltmarshes is a native plant. A native estuarine wetland plant. Mangroves.

The encroachment of mangroves into saltmashes is a serious problem. This is happening in many parts of the world. It is a strange situation in which one native plant is taking over another and with these ecological shifts, there are knock-on effects to other components of the wetland ecosystem. Most importantly, nesting and feeding shorebirds.

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Are mangroves really a threat?

The mangroves are just doing what mangroves do. The reason they’re threatening saltmarshes is due to our modification of local environments.

Urban runoff reduces the salinity of these wetlands and this reduced salinity not only removes the ecological advantages of salt-tolerent saltmarsh plants, such as Sarcocornia quinqueflora and Sporobolus virginicus, but it helps mangrove seeds and seedlings survive the otherwise harsh environmental conditions of saltmarshes. Lower the salinity, increase the invasive potential of mangroves.

Frequent dryness and highly salty conditions are a saltmarsh’s best defense against invading mangroves.

Filling in wetlands and the construction of seawalls, roadways and other infrastructure give saltmarshes little refuge or respite from these threats. While mangroves encroach from the sea, there is nowhere for saltmarshes to migrate to when dealing with sea level rise.

They’re cornered and under attack but even where the plants are persisting, the quality of habitat they provide for local wildlife is slowly degraded by colonising mangrove seedlings.

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There are many waterbirds that use our local estuaries that are under threat. Saltmarshes are great habitats for migratory shorebirds. There are plentiful resources in the form of insects and other invertebrates within the sediments. The birds can nest on the marsh and as they can see all around, predators are easy to spot. They feel safe.

There have been declines in the White-fronted Chat populations around Sydney. Many other populations of wading birds associated with Australia’s coastal wetlands are in decline too. Mangrove invasion isn’t the only thing to blame but it is an issue that needs to be addressed.

For many of these birds, the encroachment of mangroves into mudflats and saltmarshes is a problem. Its a problem for their foraging and nesting. Once mangrove seedlings start popping up on the middle of the saltmarsh, all those advantages of a wide open habitat in which predators are easy to spot are lost.

Imagine you’re a black-winged stilt. You’re trying to find a safe place to nest. A perfect place would be a raised area of saltmarsh surrounded by water. A dead flat saltmarsh with clear lines of sight for dozens of meters around. You’ll be able to see an approaching predator (like a fox or a feral cat) from far enough way to escape with plenty of time to spare. Now, stick a few mangrove seedlings here and there. They start to obscure your view. They’ll give sneaky predators a place to hide. Even if there are not predators about, you’ll probably get nervous. You’ll probably spend more time thinking about the threat of predators and less time foraging for food.

As mangroves move in, the birds will leave. Long before the saltmarsh is over run by mangroves, out-competed by the shade of establishing young mangroves, the quality of the habitat for many shorebirds will have already been lost. There may be some plants remaining but the ecological role of the habitat is gone.

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Do historic paintings provide conflicting evidence to the commonly held view that mangroves have always been present along the Parramatta River? (Parramatta River, c. 1837, Conrad Martens (1801-78) via Australian Art Auctions)

Painting the picture of change in the local wetlands

How can we predict what will happen in the future if we haven’t learned from the past?

Tracking change in these wetlands is important. The use of photography has played an important role in tracking environmental change for a long time. Aerial photography and satellite imagery have helped reveal dramatic changes in vegetation associated with Australia’s coastal wetlands. This analysis has demonstrated the encroachment of mangroves into saltmarshes and this encroachment is considered a key threatening process of this endangered ecological community.

How can we track the encroachment of mangroves? While technology has helped reveal current changes in mangrove encroachment, other uses of imagery can explore relatively recent “urban myths” about historic mangrove distribution.

Thinking back to that school assignment, I remember being told how important mangroves were to the local environment. We we taught that, here in Sydney, that mangroves were always part of the Parramatta River estuary, that they have alwasy been a critical component of the river’s ecology. Was this really the case?

There has been some brilliant detective work done to determine the historic distribution of mangroves along the Parramatta River in this paper titled “Estuarine wetlands distribution along the Parramatta River, Sydney, 1788–1940: implications for planning and conservation“. The authors have used old photos and, in particular, some of the earliest paintings from the Sydney region (together with notes from settlers at the time) and found that the estuary was dominated by mudflats and saltmarsh habitats and that extensive areas of mangroves did not occur until the 20th Century.

To quote the author, Lynette C. McLoughlin:

“These historical sources indicate that in the 19th century extensive mudflats and saltmarsh communities dominated the inter-tidal zone, with mangroves more limited to creek fringes and some patches in bays for much of the period. In the upper river from Subiaco Creek to Parramatta, there is no evidence for the presence of mangroves until the 1870s. Following settlement and increased sedimentation, inter-tidal mudflats expanded, mangroves colonised up river and out onto mudflats in bays in the latter part of the 19th century, followed by expansion into saltmarsh in the 20th century.”

It is only relatively recently that mangroves have really flourished along the river.

There is absolutely no doubt they were always present, tucked away in the tiny bays and inlets of what became known as Sydney Harbour but it was the mudflats and saltmarshes that dominated much of the estuary. These habitats, no doubt, provided a rich and productive habitat for shorebirds and other wildlife.

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So, where to from here?

Globally, mangroves are a critical component of wetland ecosystems. There is little doubt of that, and little doubt that in many parts of the world, even here in Australia, they are under threat. But so is saltmarsh and, saltmarsh is far less likely to be given the chance to demonstrate the resilience that mangroves will to continued changed environmental conditions results from a rising sea level and surging urbanisation.

Not just saltmarsh but mudlfats too.

Coastal authorities are increasingly aware of the need to balance protection of mangrove forests and the benefits they provide but also the conservation of saltmarsh and mudflats that are so critical to shorebirds.

The reality is, there will need to be a program of mangrove culling to sustain conservation of saltmarsh habitat. You need a permit to remove mangrove seedlings but a seasonal program of removal would be greatly beneficial in stopped the spread of mangroves into saltmarsh habitats. Local authorities are incorporating mangrove removal programs in their local wetland rehabilitation programs.

Removing young seedlings is easy, you can pull them straight out of the wet mud. Wouldn’t take much to organise a team of volunteers to move through the local saltmarsh removing seedlings. Perhaps in Autumn when the migratory shorebirds have left and the mosquito populations aren’t so bad?

The idea that native vegetation should be actively removed from habitats sounds at odds with environmental conservation. However, we need to maintain our wetlands for our future generations and the next generations of birds, and fish and crustaceans that rely on them now where few other opportunities exist.

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2 February is World Wetlands Day. Please get out into your local wetlands, or at least make a pledge to visit your nearby wetlands sometime soon.

Learn more about Australia’s amazing mangroves by dropping by MangroveWatch and picking up the excellent Australia’s Mangroves by Norm Duke. There is also an extremely useful text on Australian Saltmarshes that is essential.

Finally, check out one of the most extensive resources on urban wetland management, including estuarine wetlands, via the free eBook produced by the Sydney Olympic Park Authority titled “Workbook for Managing Urban Wetlands in Australia“. Read a brief article on our analysis of the use of this resource in the latest issue of Wetlands Australia, see “Insights from the use of an online wetland management resource” by Webb and Paul (pages 26-27).

What are you doing for World Wetlands Day? Join the conversation on Twitter!

Want to learn more about the amazing world of Australian mosquitoes? Check out “A Field Guide to Mosquitoes of Australia” out now through CSIRO Publishing. Over 200 pages containing a pictorial guide to almost 100 different mosquitoes along with tips on beating their bite and protecting your family from the health risks of mosquitoes. You can order online or through your favourite local bookstore or online retailer.