Social media and blood suckers showcased at the International Congress of Entomology

instagram_wetlands_webb

Digital technology is changing a lot about how we undertake entomological research and communicate the results of that research to the community and policy makers.

This week in Orlando, Florida, is the International Congress of Entomology (ICE). A huge gathering of entomologists from around the world. While it was a great pleasure to be invited to participate, I couldn’t get over there this time.

I will, however, have a chance to present my work in the Symposium “Entomology in the Digital Age”  Friday, September 30, 2016 (01:30 PM – 04:45 PM), Convention Centre Room W222 A.

In the presentation I’ll share some of the reasoning behind my use of social media to engage the community with both entomological research and public health communication. Most importantly, it will focus on some of the metrics I’ve recorded alongside my use of social media, maintaining a blog of research and writing for outlets such as The Conversation.

I’ve written about my use of social media and how it can help extend the reach of public health messages and presented on the topic alongside a range of great speakers at the 2014 Entomological Society of America meeting in Portland.

This time around, technology is playing an even more direct role in my presentation! I’ve pre-recorded my presentation and it will be shown to the audience on the day among other presentations. I’ll also be checking into the session to answer questions. Despite the fact I’ll need to be up around 1:30am due to time differences, it should be fun.

See the abstract below…

Taking entomological research from the swamps to the suburbs with social media

Cameron E Webb

Connecting scientists and the community is critical. This is particularly the case for medical entomologists working in the field of mosquito-borne disease where the translation of entomological research into improved public health outcomes is a priority. While traditional media has been the mainstay of public health communications by local authorities, social media provides new avenues for disseminating information and engaging with the wider community. This presentation will share some insights into how the use of social media has connected new and old communications strategies to not only extend the reach of public health messages but also provide an opportunity to promote entomological research and wetland conservation. A range of social media platforms, including Twitter, Instagram, and WordPress, were employed to disseminate public health messages and engage the community and traditional media outlets. Engagement with the accounts of traditional media (e.g. radio, print, television, online) was found to be the main route to increased exposure and, subsequently, to increased access of public health information online. With the increasing accessibility of the community to online resources via smartphones, researchers and public health advocates must develop strategies to effectively use social media. Many people now turn to social media as a source of news and information and those in the field of public health, as well as entomological research more generally, must take advantage of these new opportunities. doi: 10.1603/ICE.2016.94611


If you’re at ICE, you can also catch up with my PhD student David Lilly who’ll be presenting our research into the development of insecticide resistance in bed bugs as part of the symposium “New Insights into Biology, Resistance Mechanisms, and the Management of the Modern Bed Bug” Friday, September 30, 2016, 01:30 PM – 04:45 PM, Convention Center, West Hall F4 (WF4).

Novel insecticide resistant mechanisms in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

David Lilly, Cameron E Webb and Stephen Doggett

Introduction: Research on field strains of Cimex lectularius from Australia has identified widespread resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, but variability in the magnitude expressed. To determine if differences in resistance mechanisms exist, collected strains were examined for the presence of metabolic detoxification and/or cuticle thickening. Methods: The presence and relative contribution of detoxifying esterases or cytochrome P450 monooxygenases were assessed. Bed bugs collected from Parramatta (NSW), Melbourne (VIC) – 2 strains, ‘No.2’ and ‘No.4’, and Alice Springs (NT) were exposed in topical bioassays employing deltamethrin and two pyrethroid synergists: piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and EN16/5-1. PBO inhibits both monooxygenases and esterases, whereas EN16/5-1 will inhibit esterases only. Thus in a comparative bioassay, the results can infer the dominant enzyme system. The Parramatta strain was then selected to study the potential presence of cuticle thickening. Nine-day-old male bed bugs were exposed to filter papers treated with the highest label rate of Demand Insecticide®(200mL/10L of 25g/L lambda-cyhalothrin) and were grouped according to time-to-knockdown (< 2 hours, ≥ 4 hours, and survivors at 24 hours). Measurements of mean cuticle thickness at the transverse midpoint of the second leg tarsus were taken under electron microscope. Results/Conclusion: All strains possessed resistance that was inhibited by the synergists, with the Parramatta and Melbourne No.2 indicating esterase-dominance, and Alice Springs and Melbourne No.4 indicating cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-dominance. Cuticular measurements demonstrated that bed bugs surviving deltamethrin exposure had significantly thicker cuticles, denoting a novel form of resistance in these insects. doi: 10.1603/ICE.2016.92553

 

You can also see Stephen Doggett (co-author and photographer of A Guide to Mosquitoes of Australia) speaking on photographing mosquitoes to in the symposium “Insect Photography Symposium: Bringing the Small to the World.


You can join the conversation on Twitter and keep an eye on all the fun in Orlando by keeping an eye on the tweet stream!

 

Does Zika virus pose a threat to Australia?

They’re small, spindly insects but their threat never dwindles – the bites of mosquitoes threaten death and disease in many parts of the world. The emergence of a little-known virus, Zika, from an African forest, is the latest to alarm the public, politicians and health authorities because of its potential link to birth defects.

What is Zika virus?

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus closely related to dengue and Yellow Fever viruses. Discovered almost 70 years ago in a Ugandan forest, the virus generally only causes a mild illness. Symptoms include rash, fever, joint pain and conjunctivitis.

Severe symptoms aren’t common and the illness was never thought to be fatal.

Despite detection throughout Africa and Asia, the virus rarely entered the spotlight of scientific research. It was overshadowed by the spread and impact of dengue and chikungunya viruses, which infect millions of people across the regions.

In the last decade, Zika virus outbreaks have occurred in the Pacific, with reports of severe illness. But again, Zika was considered a lesser threat than dengue and chikungunya viruses.

Everything changed in 2015 when Zika virus reached the Americas.

New outbreaks and severe symptoms

Since the first local Zika virus infection, cases have been reported from at least 19 countries or territories in the Americas, with more than one million suspected cases.

Rapid spread of an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen is news enough but people are also panicked by reports of more serious consequences of Zika virus infections, including post-viral Guillain-Barré Syndrome, an autoimmune condition where there person’s nerves are attacked by their own body.

Of most concern has been the rapid rise in rates of microcephaly, a birth defect which causes babies to be born with unusually small heads, in regions where Zika virus has been circulating.

While the role of Zika virus as the cause of microcephaly has not yet been confirmed, there is growing evidence of a connection between the two where pregnant women have been infected with the virus.

Babies born with microcephaly, and those who died shortly after birth, have tested positive for the virus, and there are close regional associations between clusters of birth defects and Zika virus.

There is enough concern for the Centres for Disease Control to issue health warnings to pregnant women planning to travel to these regions. [This also includes the Australian Government] Some health authorities are even advising people to postpone pregnancies.

There is no vaccine for Zika virus. Stopping mosquito bites is the only way to prevent infection.

Is Australia at risk of a Zika virus outbreak?

There is little doubt the virus can make it to Australia. There have already been a number of infections reported in travellers arriving in Australia from the Cook Islands and Indonesia.

Mosquito-borne viruses generally aren’t spread from person to person. Only through the bite of an infected mosquito can the virus be transmitted.

In the case of Zika, there have been some unusual cases of transmission, including through sex and the bite of an infected monkey. Despite these unusual circumstances, mosquitoes will still play the most important role in any local transmission.

While dozens of mosquitoes are capable of spreading local mosquito-borne pathogens, such as Ross River virus, only one of the 300 or so mosquitoes found in Australia can transmit Zika virus: Aedes aegypti, the Yellow Fever Mosquito, which is only found in north Queensland.

The Yellow Fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is critical to the spread of Zika virus in many regions of the world, including Australia.

For local Aedes aegypti to spread Zika virus, they must bite an infected traveller shortly after they return from a country where the virus is circulating.

While the chances of this happening are small, there is then a risk of a local outbreak occurring as the infected mosquito bites people who’ve never left the country.

This is the process that occurs in outbreaks of dengue in Far North Queensland. If we can get outbreaks of dengue, there is no reason we cannot, or won’t, get an outbreak of Zika in the future.

How to reduce the risk of transmission

Fortunately, authorities are well placed to contain an outbreak of Zika virus, as the required strategies are the same as management of dengue outbreaks.

Perhaps the real message here for Australian authorities is that they need to work diligently to keep exotic mosquitoes out of the country.

While Aedes aegypti may not become established in southern cities, even with a changing climate, there is great potential that Aedes albopictus, better known as the Asian Tiger Mosquito, could become established in southern cities. As well as a vector of Zika virus, it can spread dengue and chikungunya viruses and be a significant nuisance-biting pest. Keeping this mosquito out of our cities is critical.

Australians planning travel to South and Central America, including the Rio Olympics, should take precautions to avoid mosquito bites. Irrespective of Zika virus, mosquito-borne dengue and chikungunya viruses have infected millions of people, causing thousands of deaths, in the last few years and are reason alone to pack mosquito repellents. Be prepared to cover up with long sleeved shorts and long pants if in regions where risk is high.

The ConversationThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Putting a value on science communication

For many scientists, communicating the ideas that underpin their areas of expertise to the public and policy makers is critical. Sharing the findings of research could make a difference to people’s lives, even if it is just to increase their appreciate of science and the world around them. But how do we value the communication of science by scientists?

Scientists often bemoan the lack of acknowledgment of their scientific communications and community engagement efforts. There is little doubt that these “outreach” activities receive far less “academic credit” than publication in high impact journals.

Writing for “popular science” outlets is often perceived to be a career negative. While some argue there needs to be capacity for the community engagement efforts of scientists to be acknowledged in the assessment of academic accomplishment, others argue against it. Regardless of your motivations, if you’re going to engage in science communication, it is best to make the most of your activities but even when your research goes vial, how can you put a value on this?

How can you value your science communications in a way that may be recognised for employment, promotion, grant applications etc?

repellentbandOne of my recent articles for The Conversation, why mosquitoes seem to bite some people more, went a little bit viral. Almost 1.3 million people clicked on that article. Would I swap it for an article in Nature (or any other scholarly publication with a high impact factor) that only 20 people read? Probably as it would make a far more valuable contribution to my career…but would it have the same potential to change people’s awareness and behaviour in avoiding mosquito bites? Probably not.

I’ve written before about the importance of social media in getting the public health messages informed by my research out to the public. A blog post I wrote about the shortcomings of mosquito repellent wrist bands in protecting people against mosquito bites is the most read post on my blog. Since first published, the article “Do mosquito repellent wrist bands work?” has been read by around 47,000 people. The original paper, published in a journal without an impact factor, may have been read by only dozens of people if I hadn’t written about it on my blog.

repellents2

I’m increasingly asked to provide evidence of “engagement” or “translation” activities associated with my research. This is particularly the case for my activities with Centre for infectious Disease and Microbiology Public Health where translating research for improved public health outcomes is a key objective. Those outcomes have generally been focused on providing informed guidance to local authorities on infectious disease surveillance, diagnosis and treatment.

What about community engagement?

I wanted to share how I’ve been trying to value my science communication activities in recent years. My general approach to this is to document as much detail as possible about individual activities, try to quantify the reach of activities (as much as possible) and to try to use my experience with these activities into what could be best described as my “core” activities.

In the same way you may incorporate a new laboratory technique or statistical analysis into your research, why not incorporate your science communication activities similarly?

Webb_NineNews_March2015

Every summer I find myself standing in the mangroves talking to a camera (while being bitten by mosquitoes)

Media activities

In the summer past, I’ve been interviewed about 50 times on research findings, disease outbreaks and topical issues associated with mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease. This level of activity clearly holds the potential to engage the wider community with important public health messages as well as (hopefully) improve their understanding of local scientists and their research.

While keeping a track of the interviews and their details (date, topic, journalist, outlet etc) is handy, it is also possible to go beyond that to record audience reach and assign a relative value. This is where you’ll need the help of your institute’s media and communications unit. They should be able to obtain reports from media monitoring organisations that keep track of details (interview summary points and duration, audience size, estimated value) associated with media activities.

For example, on 16 January 2015 I did a live cross to Channel 7’s Sunrise program. The interview ran for just over 3 minutes, issues about mosquito-borne disease risk and personal protection measures were covered, it had an estimated audience of over 500,000 and was valued at around $200,000.

Over the course of a year (or perhaps a research project), it is possible to assign both a financial and engagement value? For me, the media activities over the 2014-2015 summer had an estimate audience of around 8 million and value of over $600,000. This extra level of detail adds so much extra weight to the value of science communications activities.

mosquitobites_magazines

Mosquito Bites is the bulletin of the Mosquito Control Association of Australia. Distributed to members throughout Australia and many other countries, it provides information on the operational aspects of mosquito and mosquito-borne disease management.

Popular science writing

I regularly contribute articles to non-scholarly publications, these include newsletters, bulletins and magazines produced by local community groups, industry bodies and scientific associations. As well as recording the specific details about each article, it is also possible to record circulation as a measure of engagement.

If you need to add a financial value to these articles, why not consider what the current rates are for freelance journalists? They seem to be around $0.40-1.00 per word, that makes any (non-scholarly journal) writing associated with research projects as an “in kind” contribution valued at around $500-600? Planning on writing an article associated with an upcoming research project, why not include this extra value as an “in kind” contribution?

I regularly write for The Conversation. The website provides excellent data on the readership of individual articles (including with respect to other contributors from your institution) in addition to republication and social network sharing. Most of my articles receive around 6,000-8,000 reads but many have also reached around 20,000. Again, this is typically substantially greater exposure than received by my articles in scholarly journals. Recording this additional information would help make a handy argument that non-academic writing holds value, especially when arguing about research translation.

Output from @mozziebites Twitter Analytics for February 2015

Output from @mozziebites Twitter Analytics for February 2015 showing data on impressions and engagement with my Tweets during the month.

Social media activity

Got a Twitter account or Facebook page? It is obviously great to keep track of your follower numbers, retweets, likes and shares of tweets and posts. It is a way to demonstrate engagement with the community. I started tracking my activity on Twitter early on. I was partly interested in whether people would engage with tweets about mozzies but I also wanted to demonstrate to my “bosses” that using social media for “work purposes” had some benefits in line with the public health objectives of my research activities. There was also a very nice paper published in 2012 that provided a framework for assessing the engagement of health authorities with social media and I wanted to gather similar data.

For Twitter users, you can access data on your own account via Twitter Analytics. It provides plenty of useful information, especially engagements (i.e. total number of times a user interacted with a Tweet, including retweets, replies, follows, favorites, links, cards, hashtags, embedded media, username, profile photo, or Tweet expansion), impressions (i.e. times a user is served a Tweet in timeline or search results) and link clicks (i.e. clicks on a URL in the Tweet). This kind of data can help demonstrate the extent to which the online community is interacting with your own social media activity.

It will also help if you engage with your institution on social media. Help promote their activities and those of your colleagues and collaborators. In turn they’ll help raise your profile too.

ABCOpenDay_ParramattaPark_WebbGiggle

Speaking at public events provides opportunities to meet a wide cross section of the community….even celebrities such as Jimmy Giggle at the ABC community event at Parramatta Park, April 2014.

Community presentations

Every year i speak at a range of community events. In the past year or so I’ve spoken at such diverse events as Sydney Olympic Park Authority’s Life in the Park, Australian Skeptics in the Pub, Cumberland Birds Observer’s Cub meeting, Oatley Flora and Fauna Conservation Society meeting and Pint of Science. This provides an opportunity to speak to a wide cross section of the community but is also an opportunity to document experience in communicating to different audiences.

As well as keeping track of these speaking engagements (date, title, location, hosting organisation), I also try to record the number of attendees and most of the time I make a note of questions asked. This, again, is a way to document engagement/translation of research. It can also form a foundation for how you may shape research, it has particularly been the case for me reviewing the way we share public health information relating to the promotion of insect repellent use.

Communications and publications

Finally, think about ways you can parlay your experience with science communication into output that’s recognised by your organisation or institute. Why not write a perspectives piece, commentary or letter to the editor? I’m regularly seeing articles popping up in peer reviewed journals explaining the benefits of using social media, why not target a journal within your field that may not have covered the topic. You only need to see the metrics on this paper, ‘An Introduction to Social Media for Scientists‘, to realise that there is plenty of interest and having an extra journal article under your belt won’t hurt either.

Similarly, if you’re being asked to speak at conferences and workshops on your use of social media and/or science communication strategies, make sure you’re recording all those details too.

To conclude, there may not (yet) be a magic number to assign to your science communications activity in the same way impact factors and altmetrics help measure the success of traditional academic output. However, that doesn’t mean you cannot record a bunch of “metrics” associated with science communications, both online and off, that will hopefully better place you for that next job offer or promotion.

What do you think? How do you document your scientific communications activities? Join the conversation on Twitter.

The five best non-buggy things about Entomology 2014

portland_oldtownThere was lots of love about Entomology 2014 but some of the biggest highlights had nothing to do with the bugs. Here are some non-entomological hits from the conference.

1. Portland, OR.

Host city makes a difference. I know many considerations are taken into account when deciding on a venue but an interesting host city (or region) can really tip the scales. Portland was a great decision. One of the great things about Portland was that it provided many conversation starters. Tips on where to find the best coffee, craft beer and donuts dominated plenty of on- and offline conversations during the course of the meeting (plus a few “field trips” thrown in for good measure).

I’ve seen interesting/new locations boost the numbers of conference attendees for the Australian Entomological Society and Mosquito Control Association of Australia in recent years too.

bluestardonuts2. Free public transport

Brilliant. With the meeting attracting over 3,000 people, it wasn’t possible to hold the event at a single venue that also provided accommodation for the bulk of attendees. As everyone was spread out across the city, getting back and forth from the Oregon Convention Center could have been quite tricky. Portland has a great public transport network but, better still, conference registrants received a free pass for travel throughout the course of the meeting! It certainly took the stress out of getting around.

sizzlepie3. Promotion of social media

The Entomological Society of America really needs to be congratulated on the way they’re employed social media as a critical component of their scientific conferences. I’ve been to conferences where social media has been tolerated but rarely encouraged. At this meeting, social media use was integrated into the day-to-day conference experience.

There was promotion of #EntSoc14 before, during and after the meeting. From the registration website to the opening address by David Gammel, social media was embraced and encouraged. Probably the best element was the use of a series of large screens throughout the conference center with a cascade of twitter and instagram posts. There was even a large display in the trade hall! Wonderful idea because it brought the “non-tweeting” conference attendees into the mix. I had a few a few conversations with people who don’t use social media but tracked me down because they’d seen tweets on the screen earlier in the meeting.

tweetscreen

An example of the “social media screens” dotted throughout the conference venue (Source: Christie Bahlai ‏@cbahlai)

Having an opportunity to meet in real life many of the wonderful people I’d only ever corresponded with via social media was one fo the highlights of the conference.

I was tempted to post something about tweeting at conference but there are already a bunch of great resources on the use of social media during conferences. Here are just a few “How to live-tweet a conference: A guide for conference organizers and twitter users“, “A Guide to Tweeting at Scientific Meetings for Social Media Veterans” and “Ten Simple Rules of Live Tweeting at Scientific Conferences“.

Here are the key slides (plus a bonus) from my conference presentation on the use of social media to extend the reach of public health messages:

4. Free WiFi

Whether we like it or not, we’re tethered to work. I learned a valuable lesson this year when I took myself “off the grid” for a few weeks during a holiday break. It took me the best part of a month to catch up. Being able to regularly check in with work emails during a conference (without having to pay exorbitant access rates) really helps. It is also handy chasing up papers referenced in presentations and other resources shared throughout the conference.

I know it is no fun seeing a conference room full of people checking email during someone’s presentation and I personally don’t do it myself. However, there were plenty of places and spaces to sit down and do that outside the presentation rooms.

5. A sustainable conference venue

I know this isn’t always possible but having a conference venue that put a high priority on sustainability was great. From recycling of coffee cups to stormwater runoff, most of the bases were covered. Nice for me, given my interest in constructed wetlands and stormwater management, to see the systems in place at the Oregon Conference Center.

Oregonconvention_urbanstormwaterTo some, these may seem like trivial aspects of a major scientific conference but they really made for a great experience at Entomology 2014 for me.

What do you love (or loathe) about scientific conferences (beyond the science itself)? Join the conversation on Twitter.

Entomology 2014: Portland, Oregon

Portland Oregon Retains Its "Weird" TitlePortland isn’t going to get any less “weird” when 3000 entomologists hit town! I’m going to be one of them there talking tweets and tweaking public health messages.

This month I’m heading along to the Entomology 2014: The Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, 16-19 November in Portland, Oregon.

This will be the first time I’ve attended an ESA meeting and I’m really looking forward to it. These are large meetings with thousands of delegates, a big change from our recent Mosquito Control Association of Australia conference that attracted about 150 attendees! There is little doubt that I’ll be kept busy getting along to just a fraction of presentations I’m interested in. You can check the program yourself here.

A couple of interesting things I’m looking forward to (notwithstanding the coffee, record shopping and doughnuts) is the workshop on scientific writing, How not to write like a scientist, and a session on the role (or perhaps lack of a role) arthropods play in Ebola virus transmission. I’ve written about why mosquitoes don’t spread Ebola here.

I’ll be giving a couple of presentations, one on the role of mosquito repellents in managing mosquito-borne disease risk and another on the use of social media to promote public health messages. Both of these invited presentations are sure to be fun. It will be nice to catch up with some old friends during the repellent symposium. I recently contributed a book chapter to the new handbook on insect repellents edited by the session organizer/moderator Mustapha Debboun (alongside Dan Strickman and Steve Francis).  the symposium.The social media session will be fun too and, apart from sharing my experiences in using social media to promote public health messages, it will be great to catch up with many wonderful people who’ve made my experience on Twitter in recent years so rewarding.

My PhD student, David Lilly, will also be speaking on his work studying insecticide resistance in bed bugs. The abstracts for all these presentations are below but please note that due to the nature of some symposium, not abstracts are included on the Entomology 2014 online program.

Aedes aegypti

A researcher at Rockefeller University feeds her stock of yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). This approach remains one of the most effective ways to test new mosquito repellents. (Photo: Alex Wild)

1. Finding a place for mosquito repellents in mosquito-borne disease management: An Australian perspective

Webb CE

Mosquito-borne disease is a growing concern for local authorities in Australia. While broad scale mosquito control programs reduce nuisance-biting impacts in some instances, in most regions where mosquito-borne pathogens, particularly Ross River virus, pose a public health risk, local authorities rely on the promotion of personal protection measures. A key component of such strategies is the use of topical insect repellents. There is little evidence that confirms their effectiveness in preventing disease. However, many studies have indicated that the correct use of topical repellents can protect against biting mosquitoes. As a result, it is likely that the promotion of topical insect repellents will remain a critical component of personal protection measures. If they’re here to stay, health authorities must ensure the public is aware of how to effectively choose and use repellents. Currently, there is a disjointed approach to repellent advice provided by state and local authorities. What is needed is a national approach that sets the framework for

The Challenges and Significant Contributions of Insect Repellents to Vector Control

Sunday, November 16, 2014: 8:00 AM-12:00 PM
B115-116 (Oregon Convention Center)


 

The global resurgence in bed bugs has been attributed to increased international travel and a shift in household insecticide use but perhaps it is resistance that is driving the increasing pest impacts? (Photo: Steve Doggett)

The global resurgence in bed bugs has been attributed to increased international travel and a shift in household insecticide use but perhaps it is resistance that is driving the increasing pest impacts? (Photo: Steve Doggett)

2. The importance of methodology and strain selection when determining efficacy of insecticides against bed bugs

Lilly D, Webb CE and Doggett SL

Selection of an appropriate bioassay technique and insect strain(s) are known to be important factors when attempting to accurately detect and monitor for insecticide resistance or define the efficacy of an insecticide. Recent studies with both susceptible and resistant strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have indicated these principles similarly apply to bed bugs and must be considered prior to undertaking diagnostic bioassays. Age, access to a blood meal, and the period since repletion may all influence the outcomes of bioassays with bed bugs. Dry residual deposits of insecticides, in particular those of neonicotinoids, also have the potential to overestimate resistance ratios or provide a false negative indication of efficacy when viewed in comparison to more applicable topical or wet residual exposure methods. Resistance monitoring of Australian field strains has also revealed that a wide spectrum in the magnitude of resistance can exist between strains that express identical resistance mechanisms, and that laboratory strains held in culture for long periods of time may lose resistance or change resistant genotypic frequencies. When factored in to the proliferation of field strains with various combinations of multiple and/or cross resistance mechanisms, this clearly presents a challenge to product manufacturers, registration bodies, and pest managers as to how they can ensure the experimental methodology and strain selected is most appropriate for the desired purpose or outcome. The results of laboratory investigations to provide informed guidance on recommended ‘best practise’ bioassays with bed bugs will be presented.

Graduate Student Ten-Minute Paper Competition: MUVE

Monday, November 17, 2014: 9:48 AM
B117-119 (Oregon Convention Center)


 

Engaging with the community is an important part of public health and beyond public meetings and workshops, social media may provided an effective way to get the messages out to increase awareness of mosquito-borne disease (Photo: Steve Doggett)

Engaging with the community is an important part of public health and beyond public meetings and workshops, social media may provided an effective way to get the messages out to increase awareness of mosquito-borne disease (Photo: Steve Doggett)

3. Can social media extend the reach of public health messages?

Webb CE

Increasing the exposure of public health messages is critical. This is particularly the case for mosquito-borne disease where advice on personal protection measures often informs the first line of defense against biting mosquitoes. Traditional media has been the mainstay of communication efforts by local authorities but could the use of social media provide a new vehicle for disseminating information and engaging with the wider community? The aims of this study were to determine if promotion and engagement via social media influenced how online information is accessed. A range of social media platforms, particularly Twitter, were employed to disseminate public health messages and engage the community and traditional media outlets. The total weekly exposure of “tweets” was measured for six months with approximately 40,000 people per week received tweets with maximum exposure of almost 190,000 people in a single week. Engagement with the accounts of traditional media (e.g. radio, print, television, online) was found to be the main route to increased exposure and, subsequently, to increased access of public health information online. With the increasing accessibility of the community to online resources via smartphones, researchers and public health advocates must develop strategies to effectively use social media. Many people now turn to social media as a source of news and information and those in the field of public health, as well as entomological research more generally, must take advantage of these new opportunities.

Wednesday, November 19, 2014: 8:00 AM-12:00 PM
Portland Ballroom 252 (Oregon Convention Center)

If you’re attending the meeting, please say hi if you’re passing by and feel free to introduce yourself using your twitter handle! If you’re not at the meeting, you can keep track by following the hashtag #EntSoc14. I’ll be trying to tweet about bits and pieces during the conference so please join the conversation!

The image at the top of this post taken from “Top ten things you didn’t know about Portland

 

Entomology 2013: Science Impacting a Connected World

IMG_7511The annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America takes place this week in Austin, Texas. I’ll be presenting a “virtual poster” on the mosquito-borne disease risk factors associated with wetland rehabilitation, urban development and climate change.

I wish I could be there in Austin. I was luck enough to visit in February 2012 when I attended the annual meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association. It is a wonderful city and I hope to make it back someday soon.

IMG_5671Even though it will only be “virtual” attendance, I’m still excited about sharing my work at this meeting. It summarizes some of the my major research interests that revolve around the use of urban planning to assist the reduction in mosquito-borne disease. Particularly with regard to wetland rehabilitation and wildlife management. The use of planning instruments is important and just as authorities reconsider the approach to urban plannign in bushfire prone areas, perhaps authorities should consider approving new developments in areas where another hazard of the Australian environment is present…..mosquitoes. Some councils are already aware of the risks and attempting to manage those risks.

The Saltmarsh Mosquito (Aedes vigilax) (Photo: Stephen Doggett)

The Saltmarsh Mosquito (Aedes vigilax) (Photo: Stephen Doggett)

Although the option to discuss my poster with attendees via Skype isn’t available this time, I hope that there is a bit of interest via Twitter. Check out #EntSoc13

Here are the details of my poster:

Managing mosquito-borne disease risk in response to weather, wetlands and wildlife in coastal Australia

Cameron E Webb

Mosquito-borne disease management in Australia faces challenges on many fronts. Many gaps exist in our understanding of the drivers of mosquito-borne disease risk, particularly with regard to Ross River virus (RRV) that causes a potentially severe flu-like illness. Notwithstanding the environmental drivers of mosquito abundance, the role of interactions between mosquitoes and wildlife may play a role in disease outbreaks. Local authorities in coastal Australia responsible for the management of new residential developments and wetland rehabilitation projects are increasingly aware of strategies to reduce mosquito-borne disease risk. Mapping actual and potential mosquito habitats, with consideration to the environmental drivers of mosquito abundance, such as rainfall and tidal inundation of estuarine wetlands, can inform an assessment of nuisance-biting and public health risks. These assessments can further inform urban planning approvals and adaptive management of wetlands. “Mosquito risk zones” based on mosquito-specific dispersal ranges from local habitats, characterised by vegetation type and potential environmental drivers of mosquito abundance, are being used to guide the design of new residential developments. In conjunction with these developments, constructed wetlands and other water conservation approaches (e.g. rainwater tanks, stormwater infrastructure) are assessed with regard to the potential to produce pest mosquito populations. Site-strategies to reduce these risks are considered. The role of macropods in urban mosquito-borne disease outbreaks, particularly RRV, requires further investigation. The presence of macropods has been shown to increase the risk of mosquito-borne disease. Studies have shown that RRV is more likely to be isolated from local mosquitoes in regions where macropods are present. Therefore, the management of wildlife corridors between urban developments and wetlands may increase the public health risks. Environmentally sensitive mosquito control strategies may be required to reduce the risks where suitable mosquito habitats and wildlife occur close to residential developments.

If you’re at ‘Entomology 2013’, check out my poster on Saturday, November 9, 2013: 3:20 PM (Austin time) in Meeting Room 11 AB (Austin Convention Center).

You can also view the poster here.

The London (down) underground mosquito

Culex_molestus_Photo_StephenDoggettOur latest publication in the Australian Journal of Entomology marks the end of a three year research project investigating the biology of a unique introduced mosquito species, Culex molestus, in Australia.

We generally think of nuisance-biting mosquito problems being confined to tropical regions, or at least warm summer conditions. Well, imagine you’re in London in late September 1940. You’re taking shelter in the underground during The Blitz. It is crowded and cold. You’re bitten by mosquitoes too. You’re being bitten by Culex molestus. It is often commonly referred to as the London Underground mosquito and has already been the subject of some fascinating research that has shown how the mosquito has adapted to life within the London underground.

Culex molestus was first described from Egypt in 1775. The mosquito is unique in that it is closely associated with subterranean habitats across the temperate regions of the world, from underground train networks to flooded basements to septic tanks. The species has adapted to these habitats by gaining the ability to mate without the need to swarm (a phenomenon known as stenogamy) and by dropping the requirement of a blood meal to develop the first batch of eggs (a phenomenon known as autogeny). You can read about our previously published work on this here.

Londoners take refuge in the Underground during the Blitz. Taken from “The Tube 150 Anniversary: London Underground, Its Life In Pictures ” Huffington Post UK

The Culex pipiens subgroup of mosquitoes includes a number of globally important vectors of disease-causing pathogens but there are distinct genetic and biological differences between these species that influence their role in transmission cycles. There are four member of the Cx. pipiens subgroup in Australia, Culex australicus, Culex globocoxitus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex molestus.

The last of these species, Cx. molestus, had not been the focus of substantial research for over 50 years until a research project by the Department of Medical Entomology and University of Sydney commenced in 2010. The project was designed to address the gaps in our knowledge of these species with a view to assisting in the assessment and management of disease risk associated with this species.

This work was primarily undertaken by Nur Faeza Abu Kassim as part of her PhD candidature with generous support from Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia and Universiti Sains Malaysia.

How did the mosquito get to Australia?

The most cited theory to explain the introduction of Cx. molestus into Australia is that it was through military movements into Melbourne during World War II. This was based on an absence of this species in Victoria during the pre-WWII period. Our research supported this theory.

There were no reports of this species in Australia prior to the 1940s. A review of distribution records for this species confirmed the presence of the species at over 230 locations confirmed that the mosquito has spread throughout the southern parts of Australia and in coastal regions as far north as Tweed Heads (NSW) and Geraldton (WA). No specimens have been reported from Queensland or Northern Territory.

Molecular analysis of specimens collected from throughout Australia, with reference to specimens from Asia, North America and Europe, indicated that Australian Cx. molestus shared the strongest genetic similarity with specimens from Asia. Perhaps the mosquito hitched a ride from Japan into the Pacific and then, with US military, in Australia?

IMG_0170

An example of subterranean habitats closely associated with the presence of Culex molestus

Buzzing (and biting) about all year long?

One of the interesting findings of our research was that the mosquito was active throughout the winter months around Sydney. Analysis of weekly trapping over a 13 month period indicated that the species does not display diapause. As well as generally being a cool-temperate climate mosquito species, perhaps the subterranean habitats provided a little “insulation” from the cold, keeping water temperatures just a little warmer than above ground pools and ponds?

Most of the other nuisance-biting pests disappear during the cooler months. There will occasionally be a few about, particularly during warmer winter days. However, for most local pest mosquitoes, it seems to be the minimum daily temperatures that drive mosquito activity more than maximum daily temperatures. In the case of Cx. molestus, they soldier on regardless.

What about the public health risks?

One of the last unanswered questions regarding the potential public health impacts of Cx. molestus is in relation to the ability of this mosquito to spread local and/or exotic viruses. While local viruses (e.g. Ross River virus) have been isolated from field collected specimens, there is yet to be a thorough investigation of the ability of this species to transmit endemic pathogens such as Murray Valley encephalitis virus or Kunjin virus.

I was involved in a research project assessing the risks posed in eastern Australia due to potential introduction of West Nile virus. Laboratory investigations and field collections provided some valuable information but, due to prevailing environmental conditions at the time, there were very few Cx. molestus collected during the study. We need to complete some of this work to gain a better understanding on how important a role Cx. molestus may play in local disease risk.

One of the key implications of our research is that it highlights the need for urban planners and engineers to consider the risks posed by above and below ground water storage for creating mosquito habitats. While much of my work previously has concentrated on the creation of wetlands and rehabilitation of other habitats in association with urban development, rainwater and storm water storage structures should be adequately designed to reduce mosquito risk.

The full reference for our most recent paper is below:

Kassim NFA, Webb CE and Russell RC (2013) Australian distribution, genetic status and seasonal abundance of the exotic mosquito Culex molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 52: 185-198 [online]

ABSTRACT. Culex molestus was probably introduced into Australia in the 1940s and represents a potentially important nuisance-biting pest and vector of disease-causing pathogens in urban areas. The aims of this study were to review the literature to determine the current and historical distribution of Cx. molestus in Australia, analyse the genetic similarity of specimens collected from various locations in Australia with reference to specimens from North America, Asia and Europe, and document the seasonal abundance of this mosquito in the Sydney region. Results showed that Cx. molestus is common in southern Australia, but there was no evidence that this mosquito is found north of latitude 28.17°S. Molecular analysis indicated that specimens from various locations throughout Australia shared strong genetic similarity and that it was most likely introduced from Asia, possibly through multiple introductions over the past 70 years. Analysis of the seasonal abundance of Cx. molestus indicated that the species does not display diapause during the cooler months. Consideration should be given to the unique biology and ecology of this species when assessing the public health risk and the surveillance methods required in the management of Cx. molestus within urban areas of Australia.

You can read a media release from the University of Sydney here. Our research was picked up by the local and international media in the past week or so too. You can read about our work in the Daily Telegraph, Newcastle Herald and Sydney Morning Herald.

Previous publications as part of this research project include:

Kassim NFA, Webb C.E. and Russell RC (2012) The importance of males: larval diet and adult sugar-feeding influence reproduction in the mosquito Culex molestus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 28: 312–316

Kassim NFA, Webb C.E. and Russell RC (2012) Is the expression of autogeny by Culex molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) influenced by larval nutrition or by adult mating, sugar feeding or blood feeding? Journal of Vector Ecology 37: 162–171

Kassim NFA, Webb C.E. and Russell RC (2012) Culex molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia: colonisation, stenogamy, autogeny, oviposition and larval development. Australian Journal of Entomology 51: 67-77