Could a podcast stop mosquito bites?

podcasting_mozziebites

This week I’m attending OzPod 2016: the Australian Podcast Conference, a workshop at the ABC, Ultimo. Celebrating International Podcast Day, the workshop brings together podcasters for “an event for the expanding podcast industry to escape the studio or office and meet with peers to share experiences, information, insights and ideas around audience acquisition and retention, new technologies, the rise of the podcast in traditional media, monetizing and of course the fine art of storytelling.”

 So, why am I going? I don’t even have a podcast!

I may not have a podcast now but I hope to start playing around with the platform soon as a complement to my other efforts to spread the word on science communication and public health awareness.

I’ve been thinking about kicking off a podcast for a while but have been a little reluctant due to time commitments. More importantly, I’ve also wanted to have a clear idea of what exactly I want to do.

In a previous life, I co-hosted a radio show on FBI Radio (during their test broadcast days) with my wife called “Good Morning Gidget”. It was a Saturday morning show of surf music and interviews with professionals involved in a wide range of coastal-based activities, from marine biologists to surf shop owners. Despite the early start on a Saturday morning, it was a load of fun. I’d also worked behind the scenes producing a couple of music shows. If I had more time, I really would have liked to pursue more work with community radio.

Perhaps podcasting will be the backup plan.

flashforward_swatting

It’s great to listen back to packaged interviews with radio, like the Health Report (I’m talking zika virus) but I was also lucky enough to have a chance to contribute to a few podcasts this year. I spoke with Science On Top about the outbreak of Zika virus and the implications it has for Australia, Flash Forward on what will happen if we eradicate mosquitoes from the planet and ArthroPod on what its like to study mosquitoes for a living!

All these were a lot of fun and were really motivating for me to want to get started with podcasting myself.

I feel like my experience with sound recording and ongoing engagement with media provides a solid background in most of the technical skills I need to get started. I’m hoping I’ll leave the OzPod 2016 conference with a few more tips on story telling and structuring a podcast too.

What I’ve been struggling with is format. I like the conversational nature of most podcasts but as I’ll probably be doing everything myself, perhaps a more structured and edited podcast is the go?

There are very few podcasts I listen to that are built around a one-person show. I’m not sure I could pull it off. Does anyone really want to listen to me ramble on for 20 mins about mosquitoes? 40minutes?

Sometime over the coming summer I hope to launch a short series of podcasts covering some of the basics of mosquito biology and how that relates to the ways we protect ourselves and our families from mosquito bites and mosquito-borne disease. I want to share my fascination with mosquitoes and explore some of the gaps in our understanding of mosquitoes, particularly their role in our local environment. 

Hopefully I can recruit some of my colleagues from around Australia for a chat too so we can share a little about the science behind our public health messages and what life is like to be chasing mosquitoes around swamps all summer

Sound like a good idea? Join the conversation on Twitter and let me know what you think, would you listen to a podcast about Australian mosquitoes?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Social media and blood suckers showcased at the International Congress of Entomology

instagram_wetlands_webb

Digital technology is changing a lot about how we undertake entomological research and communicate the results of that research to the community and policy makers.

This week in Orlando, Florida, is the International Congress of Entomology (ICE). A huge gathering of entomologists from around the world. While it was a great pleasure to be invited to participate, I couldn’t get over there this time.

I will, however, have a chance to present my work in the Symposium “Entomology in the Digital Age”  Friday, September 30, 2016 (01:30 PM – 04:45 PM), Convention Centre Room W222 A.

In the presentation I’ll share some of the reasoning behind my use of social media to engage the community with both entomological research and public health communication. Most importantly, it will focus on some of the metrics I’ve recorded alongside my use of social media, maintaining a blog of research and writing for outlets such as The Conversation.

I’ve written about my use of social media and how it can help extend the reach of public health messages and presented on the topic alongside a range of great speakers at the 2014 Entomological Society of America meeting in Portland.

This time around, technology is playing an even more direct role in my presentation! I’ve pre-recorded my presentation and it will be shown to the audience on the day among other presentations. I’ll also be checking into the session to answer questions. Despite the fact I’ll need to be up around 1:30am due to time differences, it should be fun.

See the abstract below…

Taking entomological research from the swamps to the suburbs with social media

Cameron E Webb

Connecting scientists and the community is critical. This is particularly the case for medical entomologists working in the field of mosquito-borne disease where the translation of entomological research into improved public health outcomes is a priority. While traditional media has been the mainstay of public health communications by local authorities, social media provides new avenues for disseminating information and engaging with the wider community. This presentation will share some insights into how the use of social media has connected new and old communications strategies to not only extend the reach of public health messages but also provide an opportunity to promote entomological research and wetland conservation. A range of social media platforms, including Twitter, Instagram, and WordPress, were employed to disseminate public health messages and engage the community and traditional media outlets. Engagement with the accounts of traditional media (e.g. radio, print, television, online) was found to be the main route to increased exposure and, subsequently, to increased access of public health information online. With the increasing accessibility of the community to online resources via smartphones, researchers and public health advocates must develop strategies to effectively use social media. Many people now turn to social media as a source of news and information and those in the field of public health, as well as entomological research more generally, must take advantage of these new opportunities. doi: 10.1603/ICE.2016.94611


If you’re at ICE, you can also catch up with my PhD student David Lilly who’ll be presenting our research into the development of insecticide resistance in bed bugs as part of the symposium “New Insights into Biology, Resistance Mechanisms, and the Management of the Modern Bed Bug” Friday, September 30, 2016, 01:30 PM – 04:45 PM, Convention Center, West Hall F4 (WF4).

Novel insecticide resistant mechanisms in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

David Lilly, Cameron E Webb and Stephen Doggett

Introduction: Research on field strains of Cimex lectularius from Australia has identified widespread resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, but variability in the magnitude expressed. To determine if differences in resistance mechanisms exist, collected strains were examined for the presence of metabolic detoxification and/or cuticle thickening. Methods: The presence and relative contribution of detoxifying esterases or cytochrome P450 monooxygenases were assessed. Bed bugs collected from Parramatta (NSW), Melbourne (VIC) – 2 strains, ‘No.2’ and ‘No.4’, and Alice Springs (NT) were exposed in topical bioassays employing deltamethrin and two pyrethroid synergists: piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and EN16/5-1. PBO inhibits both monooxygenases and esterases, whereas EN16/5-1 will inhibit esterases only. Thus in a comparative bioassay, the results can infer the dominant enzyme system. The Parramatta strain was then selected to study the potential presence of cuticle thickening. Nine-day-old male bed bugs were exposed to filter papers treated with the highest label rate of Demand Insecticide®(200mL/10L of 25g/L lambda-cyhalothrin) and were grouped according to time-to-knockdown (< 2 hours, ≥ 4 hours, and survivors at 24 hours). Measurements of mean cuticle thickness at the transverse midpoint of the second leg tarsus were taken under electron microscope. Results/Conclusion: All strains possessed resistance that was inhibited by the synergists, with the Parramatta and Melbourne No.2 indicating esterase-dominance, and Alice Springs and Melbourne No.4 indicating cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-dominance. Cuticular measurements demonstrated that bed bugs surviving deltamethrin exposure had significantly thicker cuticles, denoting a novel form of resistance in these insects. doi: 10.1603/ICE.2016.92553

 

You can also see Stephen Doggett (co-author and photographer of A Guide to Mosquitoes of Australia) speaking on photographing mosquitoes to in the symposium “Insect Photography Symposium: Bringing the Small to the World.


You can join the conversation on Twitter and keep an eye on all the fun in Orlando by keeping an eye on the tweet stream!

 

Mosquitoes, Gold Coast and the latest arbovirus research

img_1844

This week I’ve been on the Gold Coast for the 12th Mosquito Control Association of Australia and Arbovirus Research in Australia Symposium. The theme of the meeting was “Managing challenges and threats with new technology” and included presentations covering a range of topics, from remote piloted aircraft for mosquito control to the discovery of insect-specific viruses and their potential to stop outbreaks of mosquito-borne disease.

You can check out some of the tweets shared during the meeting here.

I found myself on ten papers presented at the meeting and I’ve provided the abstracts below!


Does surrounding land use influence the mosquito populations of urban mangroves?

Suzi B. Claflin1 and Cameron E. Webb2,3

1Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 2Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW; 3Department of Medical Entomology, NSW Health Pathology, Westmead Hospital, NSW 2145, Australia

Mosquitoes associated with mangrove habitats pose a pest and public health risk. These habitats in urban environments are also threatened by urbanisation and climate change. As a consequence, urban mangrove management must strike a balance between environmental conservation and minimising public health risks. Land use may play a key role in shaping the mosquito community within urban mangroves through either species spillover or altering the abundance of mosquitoes associated with the mangrove. In this study, we explore the impact of land use within 500m of urban mangroves on the abundance and diversity of adult mosquito populations. Carbon dioxide baited traps were used to sample host-seeking female mosquitoes around nine mangrove forest sites along the Parramatta River, Sydney, Australia. Specimens were identified to species and for each site, mosquito species abundance, species richness and diversity were calculated and were analyzed in linear mixed effects models. We found that the percentage of residential land and bushland in the surrounding area had a negative effect on mosquito abundance and species richness. Conversely, the amount of mangrove had a significant positive effect on mosquito abundance, and the amount of industrial land had a significant positive effect on species richness. These results demonstrate the need for site-specific investigations of mosquito communities to assist local authorities develop policies for urban development and wetland rehabilitation.


Do urban wetlands increase mosquito-related public health risks?

Jayne K. Hanford1, Cameron E. Webb2,3, Dieter F. Hochuli1

1 School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney; 2 Medical Entomology, NSW Health Pathology, Level 3 ICPMR, Westmead Hospital, Westmead; 3Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney, Sydney

Wetlands in urban areas are frequently constructed or rehabilitated to improve stormwater quality and downstream aquatic health. In addition to improving water quality, these wetlands can provide aesthetic, recreational and biodiversity values to communities. However, urban wetlands are often perceived to proliferate nuisance-biting and pathogen-transmitting mosquitoes which can, in severe cases, erode goodwill in the community for protecting these valuable ecosystems.  We compared mosquito assemblages at 24 natural and constructed wetlands in the greater Sydney region, Australia. Our aims were to determine if wetlands with high aquatic biodiversity posed reduced mosquito-related public health risks, and if these links vary across the urban-rural gradient. At each wetland we sampled adult and larval mosquitoes, aquatic macroinvertebrates and physical habitat variables on two occasions through summer and autumn.  Although larval mosquito abundance was low across all sites, there was a high diversity of adult mosquito species, and assemblages varied greatly between sites and seasons. Species of wetland-inhabiting mosquitoes showed vastly different responses to aquatic biodiversity and physical habitat variables. There were strong relationships between the abundance of some mosquito species and aquatic macroinvertebrate richness, while others mosquito species showed strong relationships with the percentage of urbanisation surrounding the wetland.  Effectively integrating wetlands into cities requires balancing wetland design for water infrastructure purposes, biodiversity resources and public health and wellbeing requirements. Understanding relationships between biodiversity value and mosquito-related public health risks will enhance the value of constructed urban wetlands in cities while minimising risks posed by mosquitoes.


Aedes aegypti at Sydney Airport; the detections and response

Doggett, S.L. and Webb C.E

Department of Medical Entomology, CIDMLS, Pathology West, ICPMR,
Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW.

Despite a huge increase in the detections of exotic vectors at ports around Australia, up until 2016 there had been no detection of Aedes aegypti at the Sydney International Airport. However, this changed on 14/Jan/2016 when two larvae were observed in an ovitrap serviced by the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources (formerly AQIS), as part of their routine surveillance activities for the detection of exotic vectors. These larvae were confirmed as being Ae. aegypti. Thereafter, there were a further nine separate detections of Ae. aegypti up until 4/Mar/2016. Six were via BG traps, one in an ovitrap, and there were two separate instances of an adult mosquito being collected in open areas. The majority of detections occurred in areas of the airport known as the ‘basement areas’. This is where the bags are unloaded from the air cans onto convey belts for collection directly upstairs by the passengers. Response measures undertaken included: (1) enhanced surveillance; BG traps were increased in number from 2 to 12, and traps inspected at more frequent intervals; (2) insecticide treatments; thermal fogging and surface sprays were conducted of the relevant areas; (3) vector surveys; a comprehensive audit of the airport was undertaken to examine the potential for localized mosquito breeding. In the case of the vector surveys, some 107 potential sites were identified and grouped into risk categories. No Ae. aegypti were discovered breeding, although Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. notoscriptus were found, and recommendations to prevent future localized breeding were made.


Communicating the risks of local and exotic mosquito-borne disease threats to the community through social and traditional media

Cameron E Webb1,2

1Department of Medical Entomology, NSW Health Pathology, Level 3, ICPMR, Westmead Hospital, WESTMEAD NSW 2145 AUSTRALIA; 2Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, AUSTRALIA

Mosquito-borne disease management in Australia faces challenges on many fronts. Many gaps exist in our understanding of the drivers of exotic and endemic mosquito-borne disease risk but also the pathways to ensuring the community embrace personal protection measures to avoid mosquito bites. While traditional media has been the mainstay of public health communications by local authorities, social media provides a new avenues for disseminating information and engaging with the wider community. This presentation will share some insights into how the use of social media has connected new and old communications strategies to not only extend the reach of public health messages but also provide an opportunity to promote entomological research and wetland conservation. A range of social media platforms, including Twitter, Instagram and WordPress, were employed to disseminate public health messages and engage the community and traditional media outlets. Engagement with the accounts of traditional media (e.g. radio, print, television, online) was found to be the main route to increased exposure and, subsequently, to increased access of public health information online. With the increasing accessibility of the community to online resources via smartphones, researchers and public health advocates must develop strategies to effectively use social media. Many people now turn to social media as a source of news and information and those in the field of public health, as well as entomological research more generally, must take advantage of these new opportunities.

See the slides here.


So, you want to write a field guide?

Cameron E. Webb1,2, Stephen L. Doggett1 and Richard C. Russell2

1Department of Medical Entomology, NSW Health Pathology, Level 3, ICPMR, Westmead Hospital, WESTMEAD NSW 2145 AUSTRALIA; 2Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, AUSTRALIA

We know a lot about Australian mosquitoes. They’re one of the most studied insects in the country. Their pest and public health threats warrant a better understanding of their biology and ecology. There is still plenty we don’t know. We may not understand their ecological role in the local environment very well and there are many mosquitoes we know exist but have very little information about them. We still need to give many mosquitoes a formal scientific name. There is a reason why so many field guides are written by retired scientists. It’s not just about expertise, it’s about time too! In early 2016, “A Guide to Mosquitoes of Australia” to was published by CSIRO Publishing and marked the culmination of many years work. This work involved chasing mosquitoes from coastal rock pools to snow melt streams. We carried eskies of buzzing mosquitoes on airplanes from northern Australia to laboratories in Western Sydney and there were many late nights of wrangling those mosquitoes to get the perfect photo. Lots of mosquito bites too. Many, many mosquito bites. Putting together this field guide wasn’t an easy task and for all those involved it proved a challenge in many different ways. Digging out old papers to colour-correcting digital photographs proved time consuming but the biggest delays in finishing this project was a problem that plagues many field guide writer, “species creep”! Completing the guide was only possible with the kindness, generosity and co-operation of many mosquito researchers around the country.

See the slides here.


Arbovirus and vector surveillance in NSW, 2014/15-2015/16

 Doggett, S.L., Clancy, J., Haniotis, J., Webb C. and Toi, C.

Department of Medical Entomology, CIDMLS, Pathology West, ICPMR,
Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW.

The NSW Arbovirus Surveillance and Vector Monitoring Program acts as an early warning system for arbovirus activity. This is achieved through the monitoring of mosquito abundance, detection of arboviruses from mosquitoes, and the testing for seroconversions to MVEV and KUNV in sentinel chickens. A summary of the last two seasons will be presented. The 2014-2015 season started early with elevated temperatures through late 2014, however conditions were relative dry with neither Forbes’ nor the Nicholls’ hypothesis being suggestive of an MVEV epidemic. Despite this, for the inland region, human notifications were close to average, with 260RRV & 11BFV). There were 12 arboviral detections from the inland including 5BFV, 6RRV & 1STR, with no seroconversions. In contrast, the coastal strip experienced the largest epidemic of RRV in recorded history. The 1,225 cases were close to double the average, with much of the activity occurring in the far north coast. There were 41 isolates from the mosquitoes trapped along the coast and included 6BFV, 29RRV, 4EHV and 2STRV. An intense El Niño occurred during the 2015-2016 season and thus it was extremely dry across the state. Again the Forbes’ and the Nicholls’ hypothesis were not suggestive of an MVEV outbreak. For the inland, mosquito numbers were well below average and there were only two arboviral detections from the mosquitoes (1RRV & 1 BFV), with no seroconversions. Similarly, mosquito collections were below average and there were also two arboviral detections from the trapped mosquitoes (1BFV & 1EHV). Human cases were below average.


Are remote piloted aircraft the future of mosquito control in urban wetlands?

Cameron E Webb1,2 Stephen L. Doggett1 and Swapan Paul3

1Department of Medical Entomology, NSW Health Pathology, Level 3, ICPMR, Westmead Hospital, WESTMEAD NSW 2145 AUSTRALIA; 2Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, AUSTRALIA; 3Sydney Olympic Park Authority, 8 Australia Ave, Sydney Olympic Park NSW 2127, AUSTRALIA

Mosquito control in urban wetlands will become increasing important. The expansion of residential areas will continue to encroach on natural mosquito habitats, particularly coastal wetlands, and expose the community to the health risks associated with mosquitoes. In many existing areas, ever increasing density of human populations associated with high rise residential developments will further expose people to mosquitoes. The increasing urban development adjacent to wetlands can restrict the ability to use traditional larvicide and insect growth regulator application methods. In 2016 a trial of larvicide application via remote piloted aircraft was undertaken in an area of estuarine wetlands at Sydney Olympic Park. An existing mosquito control program involving helicopter application of larvicides has been in place for over a decade. Post-treatment mortality of Aedes vigilax and Culex sitiens larvae was compared between bioassay and long-term surveillance sites within the wetlands. While there was a substantial reduction in larval densities post-treatment, the treatments via remote piloted aircraft were less effective than those of traditional piloted aircraft. The results of this preliminary trial suggest that the use of remote piloted aircraft has potential but the operational aspects of this application method requires careful consideration if there are to be as effective as existing strategies.


Seasonal Activity, Vector Relationships and Genetic Analysis of Mosquito-Borne Stratford Virus

Cheryl S. Toi1, Cameron E. Webb1,2, John Haniotis1, John Clancy1 and Stephen Doggett1

1Department of Medical Entomology, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, Pathology West – Institute for Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, NSW; 2Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Institute for Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, NSW;

There are many gaps to be filled in our understanding of mosquito-borne viruses, their relationships with vectors and reservoir hosts, and the environmental drivers of seasonal activity. Stratford virus (STRV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus and has been isolated from mosquitoes and infected humans in Australia. However, little is known of its vector and reservoir host associations. A total of 43 isolates of STRV from field collected mosquitoes collected in NSW between 1995 and 2013 were examined to determine the genetic diversity between virus isolates and their relationship with mosquito species by year of collection. The virus was isolated from six mosquito species; Aedes aculeatus, Aedes alternans, Aedes notoscriptus, Aedes procax Aedes vigilax, and Anopheles annulipes. While there were distinct differences in temporal and spatial activity of STRV, with peaks of activity in 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2013, there was a high degree of sequence homology (89.1% – 97.7%) found between isolates with no evidence of mosquito species, geographic, or temporal divergence. The result suggests the virus is geographically widespread in NSW (albeit only from coastal regions) and increased local STRV activity is likely to be driven by reservoir host factors and local environmental conditions influencing vector abundance. While STRV may not currently be associated with major outbreaks of human disease, with the potential for urbanisation and climate change to increase mosquito-borne disease risks, and the potential for genomic changes which could produce pathogenic strains, understanding the drivers of STRV activity may assist the development of strategic response to public health risks posed by zoonotic flaviviruses in Australia.


Insect specific flaviviruses suppress West Nile virus replication and transmission

Sonja Hall-Mendelin1, Breeanna McLean2, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann3, Cameron E. Webb4 Jody Hobson-Peters2, Roy Hall2, Andrew van den Hurk1

1Public Health Virology, Forensic and Scientific Services, Department of Health, Queensland Government, PO Box 594, Archerfield 4108, Queensland, Australia; 2Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Queensland, Australia; 3School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Gatton 4343, Queensland, Australia; 4Medical Entomology, Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia

Diseases caused by mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue (DENV), Zika and West Nile viruses (WNV), are a global problem. New molecular tools have led to recent discoveries of a plethora of insect-specific flaviviruses (ISF) that infect mosquitoes but not vertebrates. Preliminary reports have suggested that transmission of WNV can be suppressed by some ISFs in co-infected mosquitoes, thus the ecology of ISFs and their potential as natural regulators of flaviviral disease transmission is intriguing. In vitro studies with two ISFs discovered in Australia, Palm Creek virus (PCV) and Parramatta River virus (PaRV), demonstrated suppression of WNV, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and DENV replication in mosquito cells (C6/36) previously infected with either of these ISFs. Further in vivo experiments indicated that these ISFs were not transmitted horizontally in the saliva, and that PaRV relied on vertical transmission through the mosquito egg to the progeny. Additional studies revealed a significant reduction of infection and transmission rates of WNV when Culex annulirostris were previously infected with PCV, compared to control groups without PCV. Of particular interest was the specific localisation of ISFs to the midgut epithelium of mosquitoes infected via natural route (vertical transmission – PaRV) or by intrathoracic injection (PCV). Overall these results confirm a role for ISFs in regulating the transmission of pathogenic flaviviruses by mosquitoes and that this interference may occur in the midgut where initial infection occurs. Further research is needed to determine the precise mechanism of this phenomenon and its potential for mosquito-borne disease management.


Neges, Nidos and Nings – so that’s what’s killing my mossie cells!

Roy Hall1, Jody Hobson-Peters1, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann1, Caitlin O’Brien1, Breeanna McLean1, Agathe Colmant1, Jessica Harrison1, Thisun Piyasena1, Natalee Newton1, Waylon Wiseman1, Marcus Mah1,2, Natalie Prow2, Andreas Suhrbier2, David Warrilow3, Andrew van den Hurk3, Sonja Hall-Mendelin3, Cheryl Johansen4, Steven Davis5, Weng Chow6, Stephen Doggett7, John Haniotis7 and Cameron Webb7.

1Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Australia; 2QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Brisbane, Australia; 3Public Health Virology, Forensic and Scientific Services, Coopers Plains, Queensland, Australia; 4Arbovirus Surveillance and Research, Infectious Diseases Surveillance Unit, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Western Australia; 5Berrimah Veterinary Laboratories, Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia; 6Vector Surveillance and Control, Australian Army Malaria Institute, Enoggera, Queensland, Australia; 7Department of Medical Entomology, West Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia.

Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes is an important component of arbovirus surveillance and virus discovery programs. In our lab, these viruses are detected in inoculated cultures by the appearance of cytopathic effects (CPE) in mosquito cell monolayers or by reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to viral antigens or dsRNA intermediates. Isolates are then identified by RT-PCR or deep sequencing.  We detected extensive CPE in many mosquito cell cultures inoculated with mosquito homogenates from several regions of Australia, however these isolates were not identified by specific mAbs or RT-PCRs designed to detect known arboviruses.  When we investigated their identity by deep sequencing, a new species (Castlerea virus – CsV) in the unclassified taxon Negevirus, was identified in several mosquito species from WA and Brisbane. Two viruses in the newly established Mesoniviridae family (order Nidovirales) were also identified; a novel species named Casuarina virus (CASV) from Coquillettidia xanthogaster in Darwin and from Culex annulirostris in Cairns, and the first Australian isolates of Nam Dinh virus from several mosquito species in Brisbane and Perth. Many isolates of a new genetic lineage of Liao Ning virus, a member of the Seadornavirus genus (family Reoviridae), were also obtained from several mosquito species from different regions of Australia.  These new viruses were isolated at very high frequency in some mosquito collections, and were often found to co-infect isolates of other mosquito-borne viruses making it difficult to obtain pure cultures. We have now developed neutralising antibodies to each virus to facilitate selective removal of these viruses from mixed cultures.

 

That was a busy meeting. I’m exhausted but cannot wait until the next meeting in 2018. Are you a member of the Mosquito Control Association of Australia?

 

 

Beware the thick skinned bed bugs (they’re beating our bug sprays)

Bed_bug_Leg_Lilly

Think you’re got thick skin? You may be able to brush off the odd insult but for bed bugs, their thick skin can ward off fatal doses of insecticides! This is just one way they’re beating our commonly used bug sprays.

The resurgence of bed bugs over the past couple of decades has been great fuel for media and pest control companies alike. From Paris to London and New York to Sydney, infestations in all forms of accommodation has made headlines.

Eradicating an infestation of bed bugs can be tricky, tricky and expensive. While control within the hospitality industry is improving, the impacts of bed bugs are now being felt in lower socioeconomic groups in the community. There are often financial barriers to effectively controlling infestations and controlling infestations is not getting any easier.

Working out why bed bugs are hard to kill

David Lilly is currently a postgraduate student in our lab undertaking his PhD with the University of Sydney. He has been doing some great work and its wonderful as a supervisor to see him starting to publish some of his research as he approaches the end of his candidature.

We’ve already published some research on bed bugs and insecticide resistance and the role of metabolic detoxification in driving this resistance (you can read about that work via at Entomology Today). However, some of the most exciting research has just been published and indicates that “thicker skinned” bed bugs are more resistant to pyrethroid insecticides.

It is one thing to demonstrate insecticide resistance in a pest but understanding why that resistance occurs is critical if we’re to develop more effective strategies to control bed bugs.

This project was inspired by a study that demonstrated that mosquitoes resistant to insecticides had thicker cuticle. Could the same phenomenon occur in bed bugs?

Working with the Australian Centre for Microscopy & Microanalysis at The University of Sydney, we were able to capture images of cross-sections of legs from resistant and susceptible strains of bed bugs. Measuring the cuticle thickness at various points and comparing those between the two strains of bed bugs allowed an assessment of changes in cuticle.

Those bed bugs resistant to insecticides had thicker cuticle. In fact, the cuticle of the resistant bed bugs was around 15% thicker. Thicker the cuticle, the tougher it is for insecticides to penetrate.

Given human’s propensity to use insecticides, it is little wonder our most loathsome pests, such as mosquitoes and bed bugs, are developing resistance. While there really aren’t many other options available to control bed bugs, insecticides will remain part of our pest control tool kit. Alternative strategies are always being considered but while insecticides remain, we need to be mindful of the development of resistance and ways we can slow (or overcome) that process.

Bed bug’s thick skins grab the media’s attention

ABC24_BedbUgs_Lilly_17April2016

The research has already received international media coverage thanks to the fantastic team at University of Sydney Media and Communications team. A quick “google news” search turns up over 70 news items reporting on the paper! You can catch up with coverage at Popular Science (Australia), Wired, USA Today, Daily Mail, Sydney Morning Herald, BBC, Newsweek, Gizmodo and Mirror.

The abstract for our paper is below:

Thickening of the integument as a mechanism of resistance to insecticides is a well recognised phenomenon in the insect world and, in recent times, has been found in insects exhibiting pyrethroid-resistance. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., is widespread and has been frequently inferred as a reason for the pest’s resurgence. Overexpression of cuticle depositing proteins has been demonstrated in pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs although, to date, no morphological analysis of the cuticle has been undertaken in order to confirm a phenotypic link. This paper describes examination of the cuticle thickness of a highly pyrethroid-resistant field strain collected in Sydney, Australia, in response to time-to-knockdown upon forced exposure to a pyrethroid insecticide. Mean cuticle thickness was positively correlated to time-to-knockdown, with significant differences observed between bugs knocked-down at 2 hours, 4 hours, and those still unaffected at 24 hours. Further analysis also demonstrated that the 24 hours survivors possessed a statistically significantly thicker cuticle when compared to a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of C. lectularius. This study demonstrates that cuticle thickening is present within a pyrethroid-resistant strain of C. lectularius and that, even within a stable resistant strain, cuticle thickness will vary according to time-to-knockdown upon exposure to an insecticide. This response should thus be considered in future studies on the cuticle of insecticide-resistant bed bugs and, potentially, other insects.

The full citation is: Lilly DG, Latham SL, Webb CE, Doggett SL (2016) Cuticle Thickening in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153302. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153302

Download the paper for free directly from PLoS ONE!

Oh, and if you’re worried about picking up bed bugs on your next holiday, here are some tips!

 

Jumping about in muddy puddles

I was kindly invited to contribute to Sarah Keenihan’s wonderful “Science For Life 365” blog recently. Please share some of the joys of “bush combing” in freshwater rock pools with me! (Also, please drop by Sarah’s blog for some excellent examples of how science can impact our day to day lives!)

Science for Life. 365

freshwaterrockpool

Sarah: Some scientists just inherently know how to communicate.

Entomologist Dr Cameron Webb is one of those people. This week he sent me a wonderful idea for a blog post, and followed up a few days later with this story: 

Cameron: The joys of beach combing are well known but what about “bush combing”? Perhaps not quite the same, but after a bit of rain, there is much joy to be had splashing about in puddles, ponds and potholes in your local bushland.

A wet winter weekend is just the time to start sloshing about.

Most of my summer is spent chasing mosquitoes about the wetlands of NSW, from coastal saltmarshes and mangroves to constructed waste-water treatment wetlands. I’m generally targeting specific mosquitoes, tracking changes in abundance and processing them for the detection of pathogens such as Ross River virus. However, Australia boasts a diverse mosquito fauna and many species are found in highly…

View original post 503 more words